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Samuel Hahnemann :: Neglected Medical Pioneer of 19th Century


Homeopathic Journal :: Volume: 1, Issue: 2, Jan-Feb 2008 (General Theme)   -   from Homeorizon.com
Author : Dr. Harsh Nigam, BHMS, MD
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Article Updated: Oct 18, 2009


It is not going too far to claim that humanity is in debt to Hahnemann, and has neglected so far its simple obligation to him. This obligation is to claim for him his real position among the influences to which the evolution of the Art of Healing to date is due. A brief survey of the history of medicine will furnish the data upon which such a claim may be made.

          All students of history agree that the first great figure in medicine was that of Hippocrates (460 B.C.). It was Hippocrates who laid the foundations upon which the temple of medical science and art was to be erected. His powers of accurate observation, his graphic descriptions of disease ( the facies Hippocratica for instance), his clinical notes, his humoral theory and doctrine of critical ethics as exhibited in the "Oath", all contributed to place his name first among the heroes and immortals of medicine. Nevertheless he did not leave posterity a curative pharmaco-therapeutics.

          Of the famous Alexandrian school only two names have persisted to our day: Erisistratus, a clinical and Herophilus, an anatomist. They gave nothing lasting to therapeutics.

          Other names, such as Aristotle, Theophrastus and Celsus, might be mentioned, but though their life work has influenced human thought and knowledge even to our own day, it did not materially contribute to pharmaco-therapeutics.

          Centuries elapsed after the days of Hippocrates till in the second century when Galen was born to mould medicine for a period of approximately thirteen centuries.

          Claudius Galen (A.D 131-201), his apostle of "Contraris," the coordinator of medical knowledge and practice, the precocious student, the encyclopedic writer, with his substitution of "hot, cold, moist and dry" for the humoral theory of Hippocrates is a figure that stands out even today in the annals of medicine.

          Rhazes (A.D. 850-923), who differentiated small-pox and measles, and his successor Avicenna (born A.D. 980) a philosopher, like Galen a precocious youth, an encyclopedic writer who saved much of the lore which came from the Far East (India) concerning drugs.

          These were unquestionably men whose names we do well to remember, but what was their contribution to curative pharmaco-therapeutics?

          Another lapse of centuries there dawned on the medical horizon the figure of a man who has destined to break the bonds of tradition which enslaved medicine, and breathe into the medical atmosphere a spirit of independent thought and inquiry.

          Paracelsus (1493-1541), the "Luther of Medicine", gave by his iconoclastic, revolutionary independence an impetus to medical thought, which amounted to a renaissance. His doctrines that "Nature was sufficient to cure" and that the body was controlled by the spirit of "archaeus" were offset by the mischief done by his introduction of laudanum and antimony.

          In that same famous century (the 16th) name of Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519), Vesalius (1514- 1574), and Sylcius (1478-1555) stand out most prominently, followed in the next century by Willis (1621-1675) and Malpighi (1628-1694), names honored to the point of veneration by all anatomists.

Franciscus Sylvius (1614-1672), chemist and great clinical teacher, influenced and influences medicine by his theory of "arcidities" - acid and alkaline properties of the body.

          Willis (1622-1675) an unusual close observer, a great clinician, also a chemist and anatomist, gave us a description of diabetes and applied chemistry to the examination of the secretions of the body.

          Bennett, in 1654, gave a classical description of consumption. It was during that century that the world began to move rapidly. In it we notice that name of the brilliant Harvey (1575-1657) who by calm, original investigation completed the discovery of the circulation of the blood, started the science of embryology and was the founder of laboratory research methods.

            Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723), who though not a physician made in his discovery of microbes and in his search for "germicides" the most life-saving discovery of the ages. True he was a century and a half ahead of his time, for his work did not bear fruit till the middle of the nineteenth century.

          We must hurry by Sydenham (1624-1689) the " English Hippocrates" who lauded venesection was a notable empiricist, a 'searcher for specifics" and approved of "observation" and the 'study of the natural history of disease," to mention the notables of the next century.

          In the eighteenth century we note that the names of Boerhaave (1668-1738), Hoffmann (1660-1742), Stahl (1660-1734) (all mentioned by Hahnemann), clinical teachers of wide reputation, who formulated systems of practice but along the old lines of therapeutics.

          Special mention is to be made of the great and immortal Albrecht Von Haller (1708-1777) as Hahnemann called him (footnote to paragraph108 of the "Organon"), who advocated the proving of drugs on human beings but only incidentally to his studies in physiology. Known to posterity as the father of Physiology, his influences on therapeutics was indirect.

          Morgagni (1682-1771), brings us near the end of our list, but as the father of Pathology based on morbid anatomy and post-mortem findings he was pioneer in the study of the end results of disease, not in curative therapeutics.

          Jenner (1749-1823) added certainly one shining jewel to medicine's crown when the advocated the prevention of small pox by inoculations with cow-pox; and he did more, he gave rise to modern immunology with all its blessings and possibilities to mankind.

          A few names have been intentionally omitted and surgeons have not been included in this resume for evident reasons.   

          We have now to refer to Cullen (1712-1790), who as a professor of therapeutics was fortunate enough to have written a book, the translation and criticism of which led directly to the discovery of Hahnemann of a natural law of cure which when applied to pharmaco-therapeutics resulted  in the formula "simila simillibus curentur" (let likes be treated by likes).

          Samuel Hahnemann (1765-1843), was a precocious student, eventually a ripe scholar industrious, common sensed, a close observer, an independent thinker and invetigator. He was a logical reasoner, and a powerful reformer. He developed a system of practice that has withstood the fierce tests of two centuries and humanity owes a debt to him as the father of Curative Pharmaco-therapeutics.

          This rapid glance over twenty-three centuries of historic medicine furnishes ground for the claim (which is Hahnemann's just due) that the great quartette of medical names, in so far as pharmaco-therapeutics is concerned, up to and well into the nineteenth century should include Hippocrates, Galen, Paracelsus and Hahnemann.

          There is hardly any personality in the history of development of modern sciences who is more neglected or ignored than Hahnemann. His multifarious genius made many epoch-making contributions in various branches of science. These facts are scarcely known or recognized outside the circle of his followers.

          His orginal contributions to the science of Chemistry (e.g. "Wine test", "Colloidal suspension of Gold" etc), are almost forgotten by chemical authorities.

          His basic and indispensable contributions towards the art and science of Pharmacy (The Apothecaries Lexicon) were adopted and followed by the apothecaries (German Pharmacies), but the author was rewarded with ostracism and persecution throughout his lifetime and oblivion after his death. 

          Few people in the field of the science of Hygiene, Public Heath, Town planning, Epidemiology and preventive medicine, know or care to recognize that it was Hahnemann who first placed these branches on sceintific bases (in the years 1782 to 1834) long before Pettenkofer, the accredited pioneer of modern Hygiene.

          He also formulated the germ theory of Cholera (1831) long before the so called founders of Bacteriology Koch and Pasteur.

          In the field of Mental diseases Pinel is regarded as the pioneer of modern psychiatry, which recognizes insanity as a disease requiring  scientific and humane treatment, instead of being held, as in Hahnemann's time, as "perversions of the moral tendencies of soul produced by sin", deserving inhuman torture. But Hahnemann conceived the same idea and project (1791) one year before Pinel reformed the Bicetre Asylum in Paris; and more over he laid the foundation of scientific medicinal treatment for mental - illness mental symptoms being given the most important attention in the proving of drugs. This aspect remained unknown not only to Pinel, but remains so in the Orthodox school till date.

          Above all these, the greatest contribution of Hahnemann is that, in the long 3500 years history of the art and science of Medicine since Aesculapius, it is he who first founded a scientific basis for Therapeutics. On a closer assessment of his contributions he can be regarded as:

  1. The Father of Experimental Pharmacology.
  2. Father of modern Pharmaco-therapeutics.
  3. A pioneer for Hygiene and Sanitation in Medicine.
  4. The first advocate for humane treatment of insane and the first one to formulate an asylum based on humane principle of treatment of insane.
  5. The first to advocate Psychotherapy.
  6. The first medical man to talk about Homoeostasis.
  7. The first to state that cholera was spread by Micro-organism.
  8. The first to state that chronic diseases are inherited.
  9. Father of Nano-Medicine.
  10. The first to prepare soluble mercury.
  11. The first to prepare colloidal solution in chemistry.

FATHER OF MODERN EXPERIMENTAL PHARMACY

Hahnemann's criticism of ascertaining the mode of action of medicines in 18th / 19th century.

          The second source of the virtues of drugs, as ascribed to them in the materia medica, has, it is alleged, a sure foundation, viz. their sensible properties, from which their action may be inferred.

          Determining the medicinal powers of crude drugs from their signatures, that is, from their colour and form, gave the testicle-shaped Orchis-root  in order to restore manly, vigour; the phallus impudicus, to strengthen weak erections; ascribed to the yellow turmeric the power of curing jaundice and considered hypericum perforatum, whole yellow flowers on being crushed yield a red juice(St. John's blood) useful in hemorrhages and wounds.

          I shall only allude to what is scarcely less foolish, to wit, the attempts, even of those of our times, to guess the powers of medicines from their smell and taste.

          All plants that had a bitter taste should and must (so they decreed) have one and the same action, solely because they tasted bitter.

          From this any one may easily see how irrational and arbitrary the maxims of the ordinary materia are, how near they are to downright falsehoods !  And to make falsehoods the basis or our system of treating the sick-what a crime!

          Cinchona was found to have a bitter and astringent taste. This was quite enough for them in order to judge of its inward power; but now all bitter and astringent tasting substances and barks must possess the same medicinal powers as cinchona bark.

          In para 108 of the Organon (published 1810) Hahnemann states: There is no sure, no more natural way of accurately ascertaining the peculiar effects of medicines than to administer several medicines experimentally, in moderate doses, to healthy persons. In order to ascertain what changes, symptoms and signs of their influence each individually produces in the health of the body and of the mind.      

          In the footnote of para 108 Hahnemann claims: not one single physician, as far as I know during the previous two thousand five hundred years, thought of this so natural, so absolutely necessary and only genuine mode of testing medicines for their pure and peculiar effect in deranging the health of the man, in order to learn what morbid state each medicine is capable of curing, except the great and immortal Albrecht Von Haller. He alone besides my self the necessity of this. But no one not a single physician, attended to or followed up this invaluable hint.

          Hahnemann makes the claim on the virtue of the book he wrote "Fragmenta de viribus medicamentorum positivis Sive in sano corpore humano observatis" in 1805. Which is the first recorded catalogue of effects of medicine on healthy human beings.

          Claude Bernard (1813-1878) is credited as the founder of experimental medicine but historical facts suggest otherwise because when Hahnemann published his work Bernard was not ever born.

          Historical fact Hahnemann is the father of modern experimental pharmacology.

THE FATHER OF MODERN PHARMACO-THERAPEUTICS               

          Let us trace the Dawn of Modern medicine which starts from 17th century and the event that dominants the beginning of a new epoch in medical science was the discovery of circulation of blood by English doctor William Harvey.

          Richard lower, Robert Boyle and Robert Hooke were pioneers in the physiology of respiration.

          The French philosopher Rene Descartes, who was a mathematician and anatomist, maintained that the body functioned as a machine, this view was adopted by the so called iatrophysicists whose views were opposed by the istrochemists, who regarded life as a series of chemical processes.

          Van Helmont, a flemish doctor and chemist, founded the iatrochemical school, the work of which was advanced by the Prussian anatomist Sylvius, who studied the chemistry of digestion and emphasized the treatment of disease by drugs.

          18th century medicine made efferst to adapt itself to scientific investigation, typified by Newton in the field of physics.

         In medicine's field of therapeutics strange and unsupported theories gained credence. Brunonian sytem, claimed that stimulation should be increased by treatment with irritants and large doses of drugs. Broussai advocated systems of blood letting, warm baths and food deprivation.

          Other methods in vouge were, Leeches, issues, Setons. This went on until Hahnemann, who first specified that the real effects of medicines can only be ascertained when they are testing on healthy human beings. In 1805 he wrote a catalogue of such experiments there by establishing the science of experimentation pharmacology.

          Hahnemann's genius did not halt there, in 1810 in the first edition of the Organon para [70] he established three modes of treatment:

1. The misstatement of health, which we call disease can only be brought to health by means of medicines.

2. The curative power of these medicines in discerned most distinctly and in proving of these medicines on healthy body.

3. According to all experience, a natural disease can never be cured by a medicine that, of itself, can arouse in a healthy person, new disease state which is dissimilar to and deviating from the disease to be cured- This he called Allopathy (The examples of which were Brunonian and Broussai's systems).

4. According to all experience only a rapid transitory relief is produced by Antipathic medicines, that is, medicines which have a tendency to arouse in the healthy person an artificial disease symptom opposite to the single disease symptom to be cured. These antipathic medicines never produce a cure of an older ailment, rather pursuant to the transitory alleviation, they produce an aggravation of the single disease symptoms that was at first alleviated in a world, this antipathic and merely palliative procedures is thoroughly inexpedient in older, serious maladies.

5. The third and only possible procedural mode is the homoeopathic one by means of which a medicine is used for the totality of the symptoms, of a natural disease a medicine capable of producing the most similar symptoms possible in a healthy man.   

6. Hahnemann is footnote to para 56 states that Isopathy wanting to cure a human disease with the same disease matter is going to result in calamity and aggravation of disease.

                    How do you add something more to these clearly classified and therapeutic approaches there can be no addition? Hahnemann in 1810 declares about the therapeutic approaches.

i). Allopathy: treating (Heteropathic) diseases symptoms with dissimilar methods like blood letting, leeches, seatons etc.

ii). Antipathy: treating disease (Enantiopathy) symptoms with dissimilar methods action for eg. purgatives for constipation. This he states is based of Galen's teaching of Contrana Contaris.

iii). Homoeopathy: based of treating similar disease states by medicines that produces similar symptoms in healthy individual thus the law of Similia Similibus Curentur.

iv). Isopathy: Treatment of disease with disease causing agent, which Hahnemann disclaims as a calamity. How true he was. Modern medical men saw that inoculation of vaccines made of same causative agents that caused the disease, caused many aggravations so the modern vaccines are not only attenuated but also modified by genetic engineering thereby becoming similar and not same.

          On the basis of above evidence is it not justified to claim Hahnemann as the Father of modern pharmaco therapeutics?

PIONEER OF HOMOEOSTASIS

           History of medicine (Microsoft Encarta 2006, "Medicine, Early modern by cook, Harrold).

          Homeostasis the process by which an organism maintains the constant internal conditions necessary for life. The concept of Homeostasis was first outlined by Claude Bernard (1813-1878) a French physiologist who said " The constancy of the internal environment is a condition of free life".

          The term Homeostasis was not coined by Bernard, it was coined by Walter Cannon in 1926. Let's read at Hahnemann speaking in the Organon published in 1805: " In a healthy condition of man, the spirit like vital force (autocracy) the dynamis that animates the material body (organism), rules with unbounded sway and retains all the parts of the organism in admirable, harmonious, vital operation, as regards both sensation and function, so that our indwelling, reason gifted mind can freely employ this living, healthy instrument for the higher purpose of our existence".

          The author claims that the concept of Homoeostasis was first outlined by Samuel Hahnemann in the Organon (1810) which was published before Bernard birth.

PIONEER OF MULTIFRACTIONAL CAUSATION OF DISEASE

          Quoting Park's Textbook of Preventive and Social Medicine.

          "Credit of multifactorial causation goes to Petten Kofer of Munich (1819-1901)"

          The author claims that this statement needs correction. If we read papa 5 of the Organon (1810): 'Useful to the physician in assisting him to cure are the particulars of the most probable exciting cause of the acute disease, as also the most significant points in the whole history of the chronic disease. In these investigations the ascertainable physical constitution of the patient, his moral and intellectual character, his occupation, mode of living, habits his social and domestic relations, his age, sexual functions etc. are to be taken into considerations'.

In para 77 of the organon hahnemann states: those disease are improperly called chronic that are suffered by people who:    

          1. Continually expose themselves to avoidable malignities.

          2. Habbitually paritake of harmful food and drink.

          3. Abandon themselves to intemperance of all kinds, which undermine health.

          4. Undergo prolonged deprivation of things that are necessary for life.

          5. Live in unhealthy places (especially marshy areas).

          6. Reside only in cellars, damp workplace or confined quarters.

          7. Suffer lack of exercise or open air.

          8. Deprive themselves of health by excessive mental and bodily exertions.

          9. Live in constant vexation etc.

          After reading these two paragraphs from the Organon published in 1810 all impartial unprejudiced brain shall state.

          Hahnemann is the first man to claim multifactorial causation of disease not only that Hahnemann was also the first to advocate to concept of man admist disease. Lets read para 31 of the Organon:" The inimical forces, partly physical, to which our terrestrial existence in exposed,. which are termed morbific noxious agents, do not possess the power of morbidity deranging the health of man unconditionally; but we are made ill by them only when our organism is sufficiently disposed and susceptible to the attack of the morbific cause that may be present".

FATHER OF MODERN HYGIENE

          Few people is the field of the sciences of Hygiene, Public health, town planning, epidemiology and preventive medicine, know or care to recognize that it was Hahnemann who first placed these branches on scientific bases (in the years 1782 to 1834) long before Pettenkofer, the accredited pioneer of modern hygiene.        

          Quoting park's textbook of preventive and social medicine. The period of' sanitary awakening' starts with Chadwick's report of 1842 as a result of cholera epidemic of 1830. Hahnemann prior of chadwick's report of 1842, published two very important articles by the name the Friend of Health vol. 1 and 2 in 1792 (Stapf Kl. Med. Schrift). 

          Excerpts from Hahnemann's article Friend of Health.

          ON HYGIENE OF THE VISITORS TO THE ROOM FOR THE SICK

          The first condition for those who visits such sick-beds for the first time, "that they should in the commencement rather see their patients more frequently, but each time stay beside them as short a time as possible, keep as far away as possible from the bed or chamber utensil, and especially that they should take care that the sick room be thoroughly aired before their visit."

          ON THE NECESSITY USE OF APRONS FOR VISITORS   

          "All the attendants male or female, should wear a linen cloath in the house, reaching down to the feet; this should be washed at least once a fortnight". " But as it is not enough to protect our self from infection, but also necessary not to allow others to come in the way of danger through us, those who have been engaged about such patients should certainly approach others too nearly until they have changed the clothes they had on when beside the patients for others, and the former should be hung up in an airy place where no one should go near them, until we again need them to visit our patients.

          Next to the sick - room, infection takes most easily by means of such clothes, although the person who visits the patients may not have undergone by infection".

          ON THE NECESSITY USE OF APRONS AND SANITATION FOR DOCTORS IN CASES OF COMMUNICABLE DISEASE

'The physician , accompanied by the surgeon, both covered with the oil cloth, cloak, visits the patients twice a day, and questions them at a distance of three paces. If he require to feel their pulse, he must for this with acerted head, and immediately afterwards wash his hand in a basin containing water and vinegar. If the patient's face be directed towards the light, it is not difficult to observe the state of the tongue at a distance of three paces. At a less distance it is scarcely possible to avoid the danger of inhaling the patient's breadth, whence the contagious principle spreads farthest and most powerfully."  

          ON THE NECESSITY OF HYGIENE WASTE DISPOSAL

          "The excrements of the patients should be carried in well covered night stools to the most distant part of the court garden, and emptied in such a way that the wind shall blow the exhalations from them away from the bearer. This should be done by those of the nurses who are most habituated to the contagious virus (not by the newcomers), upon a thick layer of saw-dust, and the ordue immediately covered with one or several bundles of lighted faggots or straw, whereupon the nurse should withdraw, and allow the excrement to be consumed by the fire."

          ON THE NECESSITY OF HYGIENE WASTE DISPOSAL THROUGH INCINERATION     

          "The sick-ward should then be heated in the early morning as much as possible, at least up to 100 Fahrenheit, and after this heat has been kept op for two hours, all the windows should be opened and kept so till night.

          Before they quit the house, both male and female attendants should bathe themselves, each sex in separate apartments, and all their articles of clothing and the linen they have used during their residence in the hospital should be placed in an oven of the about the temperature of a baker's oven after the bread has been removed (about 120 Celsius Fahrenheit), and kept there for at least a quarter of an hour, the vent-hole being duly regulated the time.

          After this is done all the other linen or woolen articles which have been used by the patients, the straw mattresses (after taking out the straw), the towels, sheets, should also be exposed for fully and hour to the same heat in the oven, and thereafter the bedsteads, after they have been well scoured, should be put in the oven and left there till it cools.

          The straw out of the mattresses, the accumulated sweepings, rags, bandages, scrubbing, cloths, brooms, and other articles of small value, should be burnt in the court-yard in the doctor's presence".

          SANITORY DISPOSAL OF THE DEAD (SPECIALLY IN CASES OF CUMMUNICABLE DISEASE)

          "When the patient dies he must be immediately pushed-through on his bed into a passage, and left there until the physician has convinced himself of his disease".

          The corpse is then to be covered with straw, and carried out on his bed into the courtyard or dead house, where he is to be put, along with the clothes in which he died, into a coffin well stuffed with straw; the corpse should be covered with straw, and in the presence of the physician and clergyman, conveyed to the churchyard in silence.

          The grave should be four feet in depth, the coffin should rest upon a layer of faggots, and straw piled the top of it up to the level of the top of the grave. After the lapse of three days in this manner, the grave should either be covered over with earth, or still better the straw ignited and the miasmatic virus consumed along with the corpse, or at least dried till it is rendered innocuous. This is a precautionary measure that cannot be too forcibly recommended.

          It is clear 50 years before Chadwick, Hahnemann published his essay on medical hygiene and sanitation and the author would appeal to the authorities concerned to name Hahnemann as the Father of modern medical hygiene and sanitation.

HAHNEMANN THE PIONEER OF PSYCHIATRY

Far too little had been written concerning Hahnemann's contribution to psychiatry. He was more than a century ahead of his time.

The Author lays claim for the following:

          1. First medical writer to proclaim the curability of mental illness.

          2. First medical doctor to differentiate organic from functional mental illness.

          3. First advocate of Psychotherapy for certain form of mental illness.

          4. First architect of humane asylum for insane.

          In the Organon (1810), Hahnemann devotes 20 paragraphs to treatment of mental and emotional disease (para 210-230). In para 230 Hahnemann boldly states "I can assert from much experience that the sublime advantage of the homeopathic medical art over all other conceivable method of treatment is nowhere displayed in a more triumphant light than in old mental and emotional diseases that originally arose from somatic suffering or even simultaneously with them". Continuing his Organon, Hahnemann says: "Then all there is to say concerning to cure of diseases of the mind and spirit can be compressed into a few words. They can be cured, like all other diseases by those remedies, and those alone, which posses a counterforce most nearly resembling their own, a counterforce which ahs been displayed in symptoms produced on the mind and body of healthy people......".

          There follows a further discussion of the interchange of physical and mental symptoms which sound strangely like out more recent concept of Psychosmatic medicine (a century and half later) from which he goes on to the purely functional psychosis. Here he says: "nevertheless there are certain diseases of the disposition which have of the body originate and endure from emotional causes, such as continued anxiety, worry, vexations and exposure to terror or fright. In time, this kind of emotional disease affects the bodily health".

          This appear to be the first recorded recognition of purely functional mental illness. It was not until much later that kraepelin gave us a classification for the psychoses in which the functional type was clearly differentiated from the organic type. This classification is used today, yet Hahnemann made this distinction nearly 200 hundred years ago.

          Continuing in para(226), he says :" emotional diseases of this order, originating in the mind, are precisely those which can be rapidly transformed into health, both of mind and body, by physical means, such as display of confidence, friendly remonstrance, sensible advice, and often by well concealed deception. Their cure by such measures, however, can only be achieved while they are yet recent and the bodily condition little disturbed by them".

          This is a reference to psychotherapy about 100 years before Sigmund Freud, modern psychology has added some refinements and clothed these measures in modern nomenclature so that they sound most impressive, but essentially they are unchanged.    

          In this para Hahnemann shows his clear insight into the fact that functional mental illness leads to regressive changes which are irreversible.

          He recommends early treatment which modern psychologists stress in an effort to overcome the symptoms before the patient regresses to a chronic level.

          Hahnemann was a contemporary of Pinel the so called leader of "Humanitarian era" of psychiatry.

          In 1791, Hahnemann pblished an article describing a model asylum for the treatment, by gentle methods.

          In 1976 in an article written in Teutsch Monatschrift he proclaims: " I estabilished three years ago a convalescent asylum for patients affected with such disorders, in Georgenthal, near Gotha". He is actually referring to the asylum he made to cure F.A. Klockenbring, the Hanoverian minister of police at the hunting castle at Georgenthal, at the foot of the Thuringer Wald, nine miles form Gotha, in 1792.

          May we not then justify claim for Hahnemann the honour of being the first who advocated and practiced the moral treatment of the Insane? At all events we may divide the honor with pinel who at the end of the same year 1792, unchained, the maniacs at the asylum of bicetre at paris, unshering the humanetarian era of psychiarty.

          Is it not then justified to state that Hahnemann is a pioneer of modern Psychiatry.

FIRST TO ASIGN MICROBES AS THE CAUSE OF CHOLERA

          The causative agent of cholera is the Bacterium Vibrio cholerae, which was discovered by a London Anaesthetis, Dr. John Snow, during an epidemic that occurred in the 1850's, then he established that the source of infection came from contaminated water in a water pump in Broad street.

          Although Hahnemann did not discover the bacteria Vibrio cholerae but he indicated very clearly in his article written in 1831, on the cause and prevention of asiatic cholera (Archiv of hom. helik, col xi, 1831).

          Those excessively minute, invisible, living creatures so inimical to human life, of which the contagious matter of the cholera most probably consists millions of those miasmatic animated beings, which, at first developed on the broad marshy banks or the tepid Ganges. It is evident that Hahnemann by his strength of observation  and deductive reasoning was able to isolate not only the cause but, the link between infected water and cholera.

          Remember it was Fracastorius (1482-1553) who gave the theory of contagion hence he is called as father of epidemiology but it was not before 1860. When Louis pasteur demonstrated the presence of bacteria in air and in 1873, the Germ theory was propagated by Koch proved anthrax to be caused by bacteria confirming germ theory of disease.

          The evidence provided here suggests Hahnemann was the first to propagate in 1831 that disease (cholera) are caused by germs (Hahnemann called them miasmatic animated beings) can we not then claim Hahnemann as the pioneer of germ theory of disease.

THE FIRST TO STATE THAT DISEASE CAN BE TRANSMITTED BY HERIDETARY

          Although Mendel established the concept of hereditary traits but a fundamental discovery of the 20th century was how heredity characteristics are transmitted.

          But Hahnemann in the 19th century states:" those affected appear in perfect health to their relatives and acquaintances and the disease that was received by infection of inheritance seems to have wholly disappeared".

          An emphatic statement of hereditary transmission by Hahnemann in 1840 in sixth edition of the Organon.

FATHER OF NANO MEDICINE

It was in the year 1839 that Hahnemann made his last contribution to the "Materia medica", the preface to the provings of Arsenicum.

          "Novelty is indeed a heinous crime in the eyes of the orthodox doctors, infatuated with the drugs of their school, and whose minds have lost all their independence in the tyranny of hoary rules.

          "What miserable law, or what anything else, can prevent the physician, who ought to be a scholar, a thinking and free man, from attenuating a dose by reducing its quantity?

          "Why should he not give 1-100.000 or one millionth of a grain, if experience teaches him that one-thousandth of the grain is too strong? And if he should discover by the dose to one-millionth or one-billionth?

          What experience did Hahnemann have?

          In summer of 1799 there was an epidemic of scarlet fever; Hahnemann was very successful both in prevention and treatment of this epidemic. He gave his own medicines to the patients, not revealing the constituents. Hahnemann's success in had been so great that the name of the remedy he used was demanded by the medical profession.

          In 1801, Hahnemann published of his discovery of the prophylactic properties of Belladonna in scarlet fever called as" Cure and prevention of scarlet fever" Hufeland's journal.

          His dose: 1 four hundred and thirty two thousand part of a grain of Belladonna to repeat the dose every 72 hrs. In metric system this equals to.0000004 gram i.e. 4x10-6 gram.

          This the author believes is the first recorded nano dose of any medicine used in treatment of any disease, and on the basis of this evidence the author claims Hahnemann to be the Father of nano medicine 


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