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Quick Review: Muscles of Body


Homeopathic Journal :: Volume: 5, Issue: 4, Feb 2012 (Students Desk)   -   from Homeorizon.com
Presented by : Dr. (Mrs.) Puneet Srivastava, BHMS, MD
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Article Updated: Feb 29, 2012


There are about over 650 muscles (c.f. Bones: 206) in human mostly paired but five are single muscles.

Common Facial expressions and muscles producing them

  1. Smiling and Laughing - Zygomaticus major.
  2. Anger - Dilator naris & Depressor septii.
  3. Contempt - Zygomaticus minor.
  4. Sadness - Levator labii superioris & levator anguli oris.
  5. Grief - Depressor anguli oris.
  6. Frowning - Corrugator supercili & procerus.
  7. Horror, terror and fright - Platysma.
  8. Surprise - Frontalis.
  9. Doubt - Mentalis.
  10. Grinning - Risoris.

Shapes of Muscle

  1. Circular Muscles - Obicularis Oris and Obicularis Oculi.
  2. Convergent Muscles (origin of muscles is wider than the point of insertion allowing maximum force production). Sometimes also known as triangular muscles - Pectoralis Major.
  3. Parallel Muscles (fibres run parallel to each other also called as strap muscles) - Sartorius and Sternocleidomastoid.
  4. Pennate Muscles (large number of muscle fibres per unit and so are very strong, but tire easily)
  5. Fusiform Muscles (spindle shaped muscles with belly wider than the origin and insertion) - Biceps Brachii and Psoas major

Fascicular architecture of muscles

  1. Parallel Fasciculi - When the fasciculi are parallel to the line of pull.
  2. Quadrilateral - thyrohyoid.
  3. Straplike - sternohyoid & Sartorius.
  4. Straplike with tendinous intersections - rectus abdominis.
  5. Fusiform - biceps, digastrics etc.
  6. Oblique Fasciculi
  7. Triangular - adductor longus, temporalis.
  8. Unipennate (fibres arranged to insert in a diagonal direction onto the tendon allowing great strength ) - Flexor policis longus, extensor digitorum longus, peroneus tertius.
  9. Bipennate (have two rows of muscle fibres, facing in opposite diagonal directions,with a central tendon, like a feather. This allows even greater power but less range of motion) - Rectus femoris, dorsal interossei, peroneus longus, flexor hallucis longus.
  10. Multipennate (multiple rows of diagonal fibres, with a central tendon which branches into two or more tendons) - Subscapularis, deltoid.
  11. Circumpennate - Tibialis anterior.
  12. Spiral or Twisted fasciculi - Trapezius, Pectoralis major, Latisimus dorsi, Supinator.
  13. Cruciate muscles - Sternocleidomastoid, Adductor magnus, Masseter.
  14. Subcutaneous muscles - Platysma, Palmaris brevis.
  15. Longest muscle - Sartorius (tailor muscle).
  16. Smallest muscle - Stapedius.
  17. Climbing muscle - Latissimus dorsi (broadest muscle of Back).
  18. Boxer’s muscle - Serratus anterior.
  19. Locking muscles - Popliteus.
  20. Casser’s perforated muscle - Coracobrachialis.
  21. Coiter’s muscle - Corrugator supercilli.
  22. Cowl muscle - Trapezius.
  23. Rider’s muscle - Adductor muscle of thigh.
  24. Shawl muscle - Trapezius.
  25. Guthrie’s muscle - Sphincter urethrae.
  26. Laughing/Smiling muscle - Zygomaticus major.
  27. Valsalva’s muscle - Muscle of Tragus.
  28. Sommering’s muscle - Levator glandulae thyroideae.
  29. Thelle’s muscle - Superficial transverse perinea muscle.
  30. Toynbee’s muscle - Tensor tympani.
  31. Wilson’s muscle -
  32. Sphincter urethrae.
  33. Few fibres of Levator ani.
  34. Wrinkler muscles of eyebrow - Corrugator supercilli (Coiter’s muscle).
  35. Sibson’s muscle - Scaleneus minimus.
  36. Gavard’s muscle - Oblique fibres in the muscular coat of stomach.
  37. Oehl’s muscle - Strands of muscle fibres in the chordae tendinae of the left A-V valve.

DUCTS

  1. Bellini’s duct - Straight collecting tubules of the kidney.
  2. Bartholin’s duct - the major duct of the sublingual gland.
  3. Cystic duct - excretory duct of gall bladder.
  4. Gartner’s duct - a remnant of Wolffian duct.
  5. Mullerian duct - bilateral ducts in the embryo that form the uterus, vagina and fallopian tubes.
  6. Wirsung’s duct - pancreatic duct.
  7. Santorini’s duct - accessory pancreatic duct.
  8. Wharton’s duct - duct of submandibular gland.
  9. Vitelline duct - the narrow duct in the embryo that connects the yolk sac with the intestine.
  10. Ducts of Rivinus - 5 to 15 ducts that drain the posterior portion of the sublingual gland.
  11. Stensen’s duct - parotid duct.
  12. Pecquet’s duct - Thoracic duct.
  13. Hensen’s duct - ductus reunions.
  14. Hoffman’s duct - pancreatic duct or Wirsung’s duct.
  15. Bernard’s duct - Accessory pancreatic duct or Santorini’s duct.

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